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Acquiring geographic data is an important factor in any geographic information system (GIS) effort. It has been estimated that data acquisition typically consumes .
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Canul, Juan M. This work deals with the delineation of built-up land within urban areas from Sentinel-1 data using object-based image analysis. The produced layers allow differentiation between built-up and non-built-up area.

Professor details geographical data acquisition and analysis tools in lecture

Additionally a layer is produced, presenting different types of built-up densities. The results are visually compared with a standardized product of the Copernicus earth observation program, the Copernicus High Resolution Layer Imperviousness Degree. Results from the built-up density analysis are visually compared with reference layer generated from open government data.

The results reveal the suitability of Sentinel-1 data for the delineation of built-up land within urban areas. The quality of the produced layers built-up land map and built-up density map is comparable to standardized products that are based on data from optical sensors e.

The accuracy of the built-up land map BULM is equal Some years ago, the main issue of regular spatial databases updating addressed the quantity and availability of the sources. Nowadays, the abundance of satellite images moved the problem to an analytic point of view. Satellite imagery actors are currently dealing with data storage and distribution of added-value products.

In this context, we present a scalable semi-automatic tool for urban detection: it is qualified with different image sources, different databases proprietary, open source, detailed, basic etc. The aim is not to exhaustively map buildings from a satellite image, but to give an overview of the situation regarding urban areas.

It is conceived to guide stakeholders and producers throughout the updating process. The workflow presented in this article is based on existing algorithms and software resources so the application could be tested quickly on various landscapes with different sensors, in a demanding industrial context. The process is generic and adaptable, with a phase of uncorrelation, chaining a Minimum Noise Fraction transformation with a textural analysis, a learning phase, processed from an existing database, and an automatic modelling of the detected objects.

When programmatically utilizing public APIs provided by social media services, it is possible to attain a large volume of volunteered geographic information. Geospatially enabled data from Twitter, Instagram, Panaramio, etc. This investigation extends previous work, showing the effects of artificial data removal, and generated error; though using over twice as much collected data, attained using an enterprise cloud solution, over a span of thirteen months instead of five.

Although there is a considerable progress in mapping the indoor places, most of the existing techniques are either expensive or difficult to apply. In this paper, we articulate our view on the future of indoor mapping, which is based on customized, crowdsourced and scalable approaches. On the basis of this approach, we discuss the research challenges that we envision to face in this world of customized bootstrapping and diverse techniques and services.

We focus our interest in the combination of multiple of indoor mapping generation techniques and discuss challenges and various indoor mapping techniques. We introduce our adaptive method for bootstrapping the procedure of indoor mapping in multiple ways through intermediate services. Those emerged services enable the obtaining of useful data for this procedure, while they increase the quality of those data.

We discuss the necessary components for such approach and we give an example of a bootstrapping procedure.

The contribution exposes and illustrates a general, flexible formalism, together with an associated iterative procedure, aimed at determining soft memberships of marked nodes in a weighted network. Gathering together spatial entities which are both spatially close and similar regarding their features is an issue relevant in image segmentation, spatial clustering, and data analysis in general.

We present a family of membership-dependent free energies, whose local minimization specifies soft clusterings. The free energy additively combines a mutual information, as well as various energy terms, concave or convex in the memberships: within-group inertia, generalized cuts extending weighted Ncut and modularity , and membership discontinuities generalizing Dirichlet forms. Notes Includes bibliographical references and index. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"?

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C Book English University of Adelaide. None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait This data format is suitable for most information purposes, as a source for updating obsolete figures or maps, or as data to be used in the absence of an expensive GIS Butler et al , ; Cordell and Nolte, a.

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However, in this form it is unsuited to modern GIS, which requires that all data be digitally encoded. The main sources of secondary data may be classified as per Table 3. This list is not exhaustive and sub-categorization is possible in all main categories. Most of the sources in Table 3. They have been listed in several categories in order of increasing utility to the spatial analyst, though in some categories, e.

There are several trends in evidence regarding secondary data sources.

Spatial Data Acquisition & Integration Track - Spatial Sciences Institute from USC GIST

Computerized data bases are becoming the norm in university and other larger libraries as well as in national and international organizations and larger government departments. These frequently give instant access to files containing abstracts or references on particular subject areas which have been requested. There are several major problems with secondary data acquisition which should be commented on.

We have alluded to the difficulty still of gaining access to on-line data base facilities - this remains difficult for many unless fairly high charges can be met or unless access is available via specific occupations. Secondly, much of the secondary data which is of value to those seeking to optimize spatial locations, does not unfortunately fit into easily classifiable categories - we noted earlier how aquaculture and inland fisheries intruded into a complex variety of subject fields.

Thirdly, maps are an obvious source of location data, yet map classification is still a poorly ordered subject area.

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There are many confidentiality and copyright problems to data acquisition which are only slowly being overcome, as are the problems of locating and accessing digital spatial data sets and archives Dept. It would be possible to obtain all data necessary to determine production function variability of all functions using only primary data collection.

However, since aquaculture and inland fisheries now usually operate in a production environment which incorporates a wide spatial area, this is totally impractical. It would also be possible to obtain most of the necessary data using secondary sources. Here we will restrict our comments to those production functions whose data sources are almost entirely secondary, and we will not be looking at maps as a data source see section 3.

Data on market accessibility would be derived from not only maps, but also from various trade and business directories. Sometimes there is government documentation from Fishery Depts. Since factors relating to climate must cover as long a temporal period as possible, clearly this data will only be available in published sources.

These might comprise, at a general level, larger scale atlas maps but preferably more specific data should be acquired from meteorological offices, agricultural departments or other government sources.

Working Groups of ISPRS Commission IV

River water quantity data is also best obtained from where long-term flow measurement records are kept - these too would usually be government sources or, more specifically, water supply or river authorities. The availability of inputs which might be obtained from a distant source is clearly going to require secondary data-usually from trade or business directories, from specialist fishery or aquaculture magazines or from the extension services. A good general source of secondary data in many countries is the government organization responsible for overall planning and policy.

Of necessity this organization collects and collates statistics on all sectors of the economy, including production from agriculture and livestock by year and by administrative unit. Even if all of the desired data are not available from this unit, the personnel can often direct one to possible sources.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Principles and Applications |

It will be a decision for the intending fish producer, or fishery planner, to determine the balance between obtaining the necessary information from primary or secondary sources. It would be unwise to rely on just one or the other - the balance will largely depend on the resources available for site selection, the amount of secondary data which is actually available and the amount of knowledge which the intending entrepreneur or government official has about the importance of the location decision.

Existing maps will undoubtedly prove to be the best source of data for examining the distribution of most production functions.

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Butler later explains the essential part that maps and the mapping services can play in the development process generally - this includes many aspects which are directly relevant to both aquaculture and inland fisheries. Butler is a useful source on all aspects relative to the methodology of mapping. Before we look at uses of the various types of maps in Chapter 5 , we will review here some major sources from where maps can be obtained.

The spatial coverage on these sources will be limited and may show a European bias. There are several sources which give detailed information on the availability of maps throughout the world, e. Nearly all countries have their own national mapping bodies, most of whom produce topographic and other thematic maps and who issue regular notifications of their publications. Table 3. There are also many private and commercial firms who publish high quality maps, e. These firms and others usually supply detailed catalogues.

Many national, state or local government departments produce detailed usually thematic maps, e. Environmental, Agricultural, Industrial, Conservation Departments, etc.